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You may not be able to choose this command from the initial Installer display; instead, you can only access it later—exactly when will depend upon the installation you're performing that is, full install or update.

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The command is likely to be active by the time the Select a Destination pane appears and certainly no later than after the installation has completed and before you restart. If you choose this command, you will get a list of every file that gets installed by the current Installer setup and the exact folder locations in which each file will be placed.

You can save this list as a text document. Although this information is not critical for the initial installation, it will become of more interest when you update the OS and want to see what files the updater installed. The Utilities menu that appears when using current Mac OS X Install discs combines a number of utilities found in the Installer menu of older discs, as well as a few new items of particular interest to troubleshooters. Choosing an item from this menu launches one of the separate utilities located on the disc; to exit any utility and return to the main Install pane, choose the Quit command from the application menu.

The included utilities are the following:. This utility, which functions much like the Startup Disk pane of System Preferences, comes in handy if you can't get your Mac to start up from a particular hard drive or get it to shift to an alternative bootable hard drive as its default choice. By selecting this command, you can specify any currently available bootable drive as the default.

Once you've done this, click Restart to reboot the Mac using that drive. If you've already installed Mac OS X, you can use this command to enter a new password for any Mac OS X user on any mounted Mac OS X volume—an important back door of last resort in case you cannot recall your own password. Click Save to save your changes. This arrangement also represents an obvious security weakness, since it means that anyone with a Mac OS X Install disc can change your password to gain access to your system although you can set an Open Firmware password to prevent this, as described in Chapter 5.

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The security risk is the tradeoff for the ability to recover from a forgotten password. To change a password, you first need to select the volume containing the user account whose password you wish to change. The resulting user list the pop-up menu includes all of the user accounts you've set up, plus the root user if enabled. After choosing a user, enter a new password twice, for verification and, if desired, a new password hint. Then click the Save button to save the new password. When finished, quit the Reset Password utility. You can access the Reset Password command only if you're starting up from an Install disc.

If you launch the Installer application from a hard drive, this option will not appear.

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In addition, you cannot launch the Reset Password utility directly and use it—it can be used only if your computer is booted from the Install disc. After choosing a volume on the left, you can select First Aid used to repair a disk or a variety of other options to reformat or partition your drive. I cover Disk Utility in more detail later in this chapter and again in Chapter 5.

In general, you will not need to use Disk Utility at this point—with one exception.

The default setup for a drive, as shipped from Apple, is to have one partition. Should you want to have two or more partitions, you will need to use Disk Utility to set up the additional partitions. These commands, like Disk Utility, launch their respective utilities from within the Installer.

The primary reason for their inclusion here is for subsequent troubleshooting, especially if your problem prevents you from starting up from your hard drive. Partitioning a hard drive means dividing it into two or more separate volumes. Each volume in turn mounts separately when you launch your Mac. In most respects, the volumes behave just as if you had two assuming you made two partitions separate hard drives rather than just one.

The only times it will be apparent that just one hard drive is at work are when the hard drive fails or if you need to reformat it. All drives ship from Apple with just one partition.

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Thus, if you want two or more partitions, you must create them yourself. Using Mac OS X software, changing the number of partitions on a drive requires erasing its contents. Thus, anything on your drive that you want to save will need to be backed up first—which is precisely why I recommend partitioning a drive the day you unpack your new Mac.

There will be nothing to back up because you haven't used it yet—which means the process will be simplified considerably. A primary benefit of partitioning is that if you make both volumes startup volumes in other words, you install Mac OS X on both partitions , you have two ways of starting up your Mac from the same drive.

If you're having trouble with volume A, for example, and you need to restart from another volume to fix the problem, volume B is ready to go.

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You don't necessarily need to seek out a CD or other external medium. You can also use a second partition to install a different version of Mac OS X. For example, if you're currently running Panther, you could install Tiger on a second partition, to test it out, before deciding whether to install it on your main partition. Even if you don't choose to make the second partition bootable, you can still use it to store backups of important personal files such as documents and photos that are stored on the first partition. Or as I discuss more in Chapter 6 , you can choose to store Mac OS X's virtual-memory swap files or even your entire home directory on the second partition to protect them from problems with the boot volume.

Note: The best and safest backup option is to move or copy these items to another drive altogether, not just another partition of the same drive. If the drive fails completely for some reason, such a failure is likely to affect both partitions. In any case, you can erase one partition for example, via the Installer's Erase and Install option without erasing any others. The day may come, for example, when Mac OS X files get so messed up that the only solution is to erase the volume and start over.

With two partitions, you can erase the boot partition without losing whatever is on the second partition. Mac OS 9 on the second partition. Since some files work in Mac OS 9 directly but not in Classic primarily extensions and control panels—for more on this, see the online Classic chapter , with only one copy of Mac OS 9 installed, you may have to choose between giving up on these programs so that you can use Classic in Mac OS X or keeping them and giving up on Classic. A related benefit: If you hold down the Option key at startup as discussed in Chapter 5 , you can select a startup volume.

Mac OS X on the second partition. Alternatively, especially for Macs that cannot boot from Mac OS 9, you can have the second partition be a second Mac OS X boot volume—for example, populated with maintenance and repair utilities. In this case, I would boot from the second partition only in emergencies, since regularly switching back and forth between two Mac OS X installations can lead to confusion and problems, such as permissions errors that prevent files from opening.

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Bottom line: I recommend partitioning a drive as long as your hard drive is large enough to accommodate more than one partition. If you hard drive is 60 GB or more, you should have more than enough room for at least two partitions. The following are some general instructions for dividing a drive into two partitions. Remember: Doing so will erase all existing data on any and all current partitions for this drive. Partitioning without erasing. There are now utilities—such as Prosoft's Drive Genius www.

Always back up your drive before using one of these utilities, in case something goes wrong. I can tell you that I have used Drive Genius and it worked just fine. When you select one of these applications from the Utilities menu, the Installer launches the copy of the utility found there. If you choose this command, a log window will open, displaying all actions and errors if any that occur while Mac OS X is being installed.

In most cases, you can ignore any reported errors, because they don't imply that you won't be able to install Mac OS X. If you really trip over a show-stopping error, you will almost certainly be warned about it directly, via a message alert in the Installer window. In other words, you won't need to check the log. The log may prove useful as a diagnostic aid, however, if a problem occurs for which no other explanatory message appears.

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You can choose at any time to save the log to your hard drive by clicking the Save button. Returning to the main Installer window, you begin with the Introduction pane, which contains important information about the requirements for installing Mac OS X and what you need to do before installing it. For example, it is likely to warn you about checking for firmware updates. Read the brief message and click Continue.

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You have now completed the Introduction. Next up is the License pane, which provides the Software License Agreement for the software you're about to install. Agree to the terms and then move on. The error message on the bottom appeared when trying to install Mac OS X on a volume that is currently the startup disk. In this pane, you will see an icon for every mounted volume that is, each drive or partition of a drive.

Some icons may include a symbol such as an octagon with an exclamation point indicating that you cannot currently install Mac OS X on that volume. If you do click the volume, a message will appear at the bottom of the window, indicating what the problem is and what you can do about it.